Palden Lhamo Ferocious Dharma Protector

Formerly, Palden Lhamo is classed as a “Shri Devi” which is a type of fierce female protector of Tibetan Buddhism. Additionally, she is included as one of the eight great Dharmapala which is a Sanskrit term for “Dharma protector or defender”. These fierce wrathful deities certainly have a ferocious reputation and appearance.

In Tibetan, she is also known by the name Magzor Gyalmo which translates as “glorious goddess, the queen who repels armies”. However, Palden Lhamo has taken things to the extreme. Indeed, she even murdered her own son and drank his blood in defense of the Dharma. Afterwards she solidified her fearsome reputation by escaping from the depths of hell (see more below).

The Peaceful Side of Palden Lhamo

This fearsome introduction belies the fact that she was appointed protector of the Dharma by the Buddha himself. Additionally, this ferocious deity is integral to the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism and she is the personal protector of the Panchen and Dalai Lamas.

In further contradiction, the peaceful embodiment of Palden Lhamo is Saraswati who is the patron goddess of “art, music and letters”. She is also the consort of Manjushri who embodies the Buddha’s wisdom.

So how did Palden Lhamo obtain such an ambivalent identity? This is one of the mysteries of Tibetan Buddhism. However, lets go over what we know about her including her mixed reputation.

Saraswati thangka painting
The peaceful embodiment of Palden Lhamo is in stark contrast to her darker side.

“Dharma Protectress of Lhasa”

Initially, her dedication to the Gelug school emerged in a vision of the 1st Dalai Lama while he was meditating near her sacred mountain home outside Lhasa. In his vision of Palden Lhamo, she appeared and promised to “protect the reincarnation lineage of the Dalai Lamas”.

Thereafter, regents and monks charged with the selection of succeeding Dalai Lamas have sought her counsel through visions that appeared during meditation. As a result, the selection of every Dalai lama since the 15th century has been influenced by Palden Lhamo.

However, the influence of Palden Lhamo predates the existence of the Gelug Buddhist school. For instance, she was the chosen protector of the “Trulang Shrine” in the 7th century. The shrine belonged to the Tibetan King – Songtsan Gampo – who was responsible implementing Buddhism as Tibet’s national religion.

After Tibetan Buddhism experienced a period of disintegration beginning in the 9th century, Palden Lhamo reemerged. She is believed to have advised the Tibetan monk – Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje – to kill the anti-Buddhist King Langdarma in 841 ACE. Indeed, the king was assassinated and Tibetan Buddhism experienced a renaissance soon afterwards.

Ferocious Nature of the Dharmapala

As mentioned, the wrathful embodiment of Palden Lhamo is a fierce Dharmapala. Himalayan art portrays these protector deities as fearsome beings. As a result, they are depicted with morbid accoutrements such as human skulls, skin, blood and bones. Additionally, they drink human blood, eat human flesh and they are often depicted standing on human corpses. Indeed, Palden Lhamo’s reputation is the most fearsome of them all.

Palden Lhamo thangka painting
Our Palden Lhamo thangka is a depiction of her wrathful embodiment.

The Origins of the Wrathful Palden Lhamo

In a past existence, Palden Lhamo was named Remati and she was married to the King of Lanka. However, the King of Lanka was very hostile to Buddhism and he had killed many Dharma practitioners. Additionally, he had turned their son against Buddhists and they both killed Buddhists against her will.

Therefore, Remati defiantly vowed to destroy the lineage of the king if he did not convert to Buddhism and stop his persecution of Buddhists. However, the king was not sympathetic and he continued with his evil ways.

Revenge of the Glorious Goddess

One day when the king was out hunting, she slaughtered their son in the most gruesome manner imaginable. After she killed him, she flayed him and used his skin to make a saddle. But she also ate his flesh and drank his blood using his skull as a cup called a “kapala”.

Using her son’s skin as a saddle, she made her escape riding on a mule that was gifted to her by the gods. As she was galloping away the king returned and learned of the horrific death of his son. As a result, he became enraged and shot a poison arrow at Remati. The arrow struck the mule in its hindquarter.

Remati pulled out the arrow and healed the wound with her magic powers. Additionally, she converted the wound into an eye while cursing her husband. “May the wound of my mount become an eye large enough to watch over the twenty-four regions, and may I myself be the one to extirpate the lineage of the malignant kings of Lanka!”.

She then rode her mule all the way to eastern Siberia passing through India, Tibet, China and Mongolia.

The Redemption

After her death, Palden Lhamo was reborn in hell. However, she was unrepentant and she fought her way out. During her escape from hell she grabbed a bag of diseases and a sword, she then emerged from hell in the charnel grounds.

Feeling exhausted and depressed, she prayed to the Buddha and she asked for a reason to go on. The Buddha Vajradhara (the tantric version of Shakyamuni Buddha) appeared before her and suggested that she become a Dharma protector. As such, she has arisen as the Dharmapala that she is.

Palden Lhamo Mantra

“JO RAMO JO RAMO JO JO RAMO TUNJO KALA RACHENMO RAMO AJA DAJA TUNJO RULU RULU HUNG JO HUNG”

Additional Sources:

  • http://www.khandro.net/deities_female_paldenlhamo.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palden_Lhamo
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lhamo_La-tso
  • http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php?title=Palden_Lhamo
  • https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Saraswati
  • https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=164
  • https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=358
  • http://rubinmuseum.org/collection/artwork/magzor-gyalmo-queen-who-repels-armies-1996-19-1