Do Buddhists Worship Buddha Statues?

Buddhist Practice & Buddha Statues

Do Buddhists worship Buddha statues? Archeological evidence of Buddha statues does not appear until several centuries after the death of Gautama Buddha. However, we can quickly draw a couple of pertinent conclusions about Buddha statues. 1) The Buddha did not use a Buddha statue for his practice 2) The Buddha predates the existence of Buddha statues and therefore did not specifically instruct his followers about them.

However, important components of Buddhism include teachings about “false views” and “no self”. As a result, we can imply with certainty the answer to this question from these teachings.

Why do Buddhists Appear to Be Praying?

Unfortunately, it does appear that some Buddhists are praying to Buddha statues. However, this is not what the Buddha taught and therefore technically Buddhists are not praying to the statues. One way to explain this is to say that their behavior is really just a form of respect (although it looks like praying). For example, when the national flag is raised we salute or perhaps sing the national anthem. Alternatively, when you worship an idol or statue you make sacrifices to it, pray to it and hope to receive good fortune in return. In such case you would be worshiping the statue. The “respect” form type of worship is what Buddhists are supposed to practice. 

A simple analogy can be drawn between Buddha statues and similar Christian statues such as the Virgin Mary or the saints. These statues are to be respected and used as a source of inspiration for the values they represent. Additionally, the Christian bible strongly condemns idolatry. Nonetheless, you would be blind to ignore the fact that some Christians pray to the statues. Unfortunately, the same thing can be observed of some Buddhists.

What did the Buddha Actually Teach?

I think it is unlikely that Buddhists who worship Buddha statues have actually studied the Buddhists texts. However, if they had done so, they might retort by referencing the Dhammapada. Indeed the Buddha did say in the Dhammapada that adherents should “worship” those with “perfected minds”. Perhaps it could be implied that Buddhists should worship images of those with perfected minds e.g. Statues of Buddhas or bodhisattvas?

It is interesting that the Buddha did make reference to worship in an important text such as the Dhammapada. However, this is clearly meant to be the respect form of worship and not idolatry.  The following excerpts can be found in the Dhammapada.

Dhammapada Verses 106 & 107

106.
Though month after month for a hundred years
one should offer sacrifices by the thousands, yet
if only for a moment one should worship those of
perfected minds that honor is indeed better than a
century of sacrifice.

107.
Though for a hundred years one should tend the
sacrificial fire in the forest, yet if only for a
moment one should worship those of perfected
minds, that worship is indeed better than a
century of sacrifice.

Further Clarification of the Buddha’s Teachings

According to the experts, the term that the Buddha used in the Dhammapada did clearly translate as “worship”. Fortunately, it is very easy to discredit the worship of Buddha statues because it would be considered a “false view”. Also known as “wrong view”, it is considered to be one of the 9 defilements and their origin is found in ignorance.

The false view that stands out here is “seeing selflessness as self”. If you worship a Buddha statue you have created a person, self or a being out of a mere object. It is merely a mirage according to Buddhist teachings and therefore it doesn’t exist. As a result, it can be conclusively implied that the Buddha did not mean that Buddhists should worship or pray to Buddha statues. In fact, practicing Buddhists should not be worshiping or praying to anything at all including the Buddha himself.

It is important to note that symbols are common in Buddhist practice. For example, the sweet smell of incense (proliferation of good), a bowl of water (purity) or flowers (impermanence). Likewise the Buddha statue is an important symbol that stands for faith and adherence to Buddhist virtues. However, without dedication and proper practice these symbols have no meaning because they are only selfless objects.

Additional sources:
http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/scrndhamma.pdf
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/dharmadata/fdd35.htm
http://www.buddhanet.net/ans6.htm